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F.A.Q.: Armenian Terrorism Against The Turks 1

  • Tahir Gaffarof

    Armenian terrorism against the Turks

    Baku 2001

    The scientific editors
    O. Sultanof
    doctor of historical sciences, professor

    N. Maxwell
    candidate of historical sciences

    Translated from Azerbaijanian
    by A. Agabayli

    The reviewers
    I. Hajiyef
    doctor of historical sciences, professor
    M. Suleymanof, R. Musayef
    candidates of historical sciences

    Q 702060200
    104 2001

    T. B. Gaffarof. Armenian terrorism against the Turks. Baku, Publishing-Polygraphic Centre, 2001, 120 p.

    T.B.Gaffarof 2001

    For many years different nations lived peacefully, side by side in Ottoman mpire. Turks approached respectfully to the rights of all the nations, including Armenians.
    Rich and well to do men in armenians were more than in other nations of empire. It was the result of particular and privilaged treatment of turkish governors with Armenians for centuries. Armenian professor K. Patkanyan was writing: Ar-menians didn`t signify in the history of mankind, they weren`t good masters of the land, but they were good servants of powerful neighbours. And that`s why, as professor Z. Bunyadov noticed, they were a nation having great privilages even in the Saljuges times. Middle age armenians called the saljuge sultans cross-lovers. Armenians were living free, and elite was rich in times of the Atabays, Elkhanies, Jalairs, Garagoyunlues, Aggoyunlues, Safa-vits (except Shah Abbas`s times), the Gajars and Ottoman period. In 1441 Jahanshah the Garagoyunlu transferred the centre of armenian catholikos from Sis (It was in Kilikiya) to Uch-kilsa (Echmiadzin). Arme-nian trusted into ruling and financial systems and they took advantageous posts almost in all trading and credit affairs. F.Engels was writing: In Turkey not turks, but europeans and armenians that settled in big sea ports and gathered all the trade affairs in their hands were carrying the trade. Dashnaksutun leaders Akop pasha and Nubar pasha were dear peoples of sultan Abdulhamid the II. Former was his personal treasurer, the latter was visier. As Echmiadzin synod`s procurator wrote to Russia emperor proves with irrefutable exactness, that historical fate of this nation was not able to establish its independent state, state organism, to accept the funda-mental values of high civilization. He attracts our attention to a such fact that in history for some thousands of years there wasn`t a single name of armenian among the genuises of science and art.
    Russia for realizing of its aims always made the best use of armenian appe-tite. In 1826-1827 when Russia occupied Iravan and Nakhchivan khanates of Azer-baijan, deceived by Petersburg`s saying we shall give you independence, armenians under head of patriarch Nerses Ashtarak took an active part in helping them. In his appeal Nerses said to poeple: Courageous armenians, rise everybody, as a single wholeWash your native land with blood, live free and independently forever!..Forge ahead! Now, or never!. Since from the occupation of Northern Azerbaijan by Russia till the beginning of XX century about 1 000 000 armenian were transferred to Azerbaijan from neighbouring countries. Russians jointly armenians formed un-bearable conditions for turks, so 100 000 azerbaijanians from Iravan, Nakhchivan, Garabagh, Shuragol, Pambak and Lory regions of Azerbaijan were obliged to leave their native lands. According to Turkmen-chay agreement between Iran and Russia (February 10, 1828) those of khan, bay origin and ecclesiastic chiefs could not settle in Nakhchivan, Garabag and Iravan territories. Russia formed Armenian regi-on in Azerbaijan territory. 69,3 per cent of the population were azerbaijanians, but only 23 per cent - armenians.
    From the beginning of the XX century for some objective reasons the Ottoman empire rapidly began to weaken. One of the basic conditions of bourgeois ownership was personal and property safeguarding. As it wasn`t safeguarding it instigated armenians against the existed regime (F. Engels). Countries which wanted to devide Turkey began to set a fire and turn armenians against the central government. The leaders of Turkish armenians knew that those armenians who lived in Russia, as other nations were rightless . At the end of I 30s of XIX cenruty a part of armenians that moved to Russia couldn`t bear the existing conditions and tried to return back. In his report to Nickolas I baron Gan was writing: Armenians, that moved from Turkey to Russia refusing homes and lands given them, by their own wish are returning back to Turkey. The number of armenian refugees is so large the border military units are increased for their returning back. Since from 1863 (after suppressing of Polish revolt) russianizing policy was inten-sified in the far provinces of Russia. 500 armenian schools have been closed in Caucasus. According to tzar`s decree since march 11, 1863 all the rights and duties of armenian catholikos have been restricted, they were allowed to be occupied only with religious affairs. Afterwards catholikos could only have relations with foreign churches through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
    But in Ottoman empire the condition of armenians was better than other nations. Since from 1863 armenian ommunity of empire was living according to their own constitution consisting of 99 points called Regulations of armenian people. They had their supreme organ a national as-sembly consisting of 140 representatives, which was able to have relations with embassies of foreign countries, rule and represent the nation, had special rights, system of tax. Since from 1859 newspapers and books were publishing in armenian lanquage.
    On his meeting with the ambas-sador of Great Britain on March, 1878 armenian patriarch in Istanbul noticed that armenians mustn`t be displeased about their turkish governors. They prefered to live under the sultan`s ruling. But as patriarch confessed, when armenians knew about that, eastern parts of empire could be joined to Russia, in 1878 they changed their minds. Russian tzar Nickolas I`s idea of division of a big man (Ottoman empire T.G.) gave armenian nationalists great hopes. One of the Ghnchak party foun-ders Kofah (Sh. Kofyants T.G.) was justifiably writting: Looking at the history we can say decisively that at first the tzarist autocracy, Russian patriarchate used to instigate us - armenians.
    During the YII Russia Turkey War years, as Ottoman empire had been defeated and Russia demanded a part of Anadolu, surely, following the advices of Echmiadzin catholikos, patriarch of Istanbul Varjha-badyan on his meeting with Russian prince Nickolas at the beginning of, noticed how armenians were long sufferings, how they had been chased, and asked for help. Under pretext of it Russia according the XYI paragraph of San Stefano agreement (NULL, 3 March) seezed a great part of Anadolu, besides it he became a protector of armenians who lived in other regions of Ottoman empire and got the rights to interfere in armenian turk problem. Indeed, San Stefano agreement wasn`t translated into life. According to the de-mands of England it was reconsidered under the chairmanship of Bismark in Berlin congress (NULL, 13 June,). Lands of Anadolu rereturned. But by the help of Russians armenians could raise the armenians problem to the level of inter-national politics for the first time. The Turkish sultan was instructed to carry out reforms on the improving of life conditions of armenians who lived in these regions. So, there was sowed seeds of dissension bet-ween armenians and turks. e - w were formed at schools opened by american catholic missionaries in 30 40 years of XIX century, societies functioning in 1870-1880 in Van, Mush, Erzrum, besides organized in 1878 in Van a terrorist society Black Cross considering the main way of reaching their aims with half true half false agitation, terror and armament, organized in 1881 society De-fenders of the motherland, leaders of ar-menian community, parties as Armenican which were organized in 1885 in France, Ghnchak organized in 1886 in Geneva (it was revolutionary socialist party), arme-nian revolutionary federation Dashnak-sutun which formed in 1890 in Tiflis. The aim of these parties was however to excite hatred against turks, to arm them and to organize rising in arm. In the program of Ghnchak party it was clearly noted to kill turks and kurds where they saw them. They even advised to kill those armenians who didn`t defend interests of other arme-nians. In the IY point of the programme was written: Terror is the aid of people`s defence and for having their confidence. In the program of Dashnaksutun which was functioning both in Russia and Turkey was written that the bonds preventing the prog-ress of armenians were in Turkey. These bonds had to be broken. Armenians losing the sense of reality, following their untrue dreams were the toys in the hands of go-vernments who wanted to divide the Otto-man empire and they were the suitable instruments in the hands of those, who wanted to reach their aims.
    Russia and England supported armenian separatists. Even the special arme-nian committee was organized in London. Baron Briss and the organization of Friends of Armenia collected money for their armament. Russian diplomat general Moskevitsky, as he noted himself, played a great part in war supplies, and in the organization of armenian uprisings in 1896 in Van. As a result of this some armenian revolts and uprisings took place in the Ottoman empire at the end of the XIX century. Large number of uprisings took place in Erzrum, Istanbul, Samsun, Zeytun and Van. Agasi, who was one of the leaders of Zeytun revolt noted that at this revolt died 20 000 (13 000 soidiers) turks and only 125 armenians. By a sudden attack armeni-ans took 50 officers and 600 soldiers into prisoners, running wild armenian women tortured and killed them. Later armenians and their accompanists (Lepsius and others) were noting that their loses were as if about 6 000 men. At the result of Van revolt 418 turks and 1715 armenians hab been killed. Attacking Kuvas settlement armenians lost 100 men, from the turkish side 4 men died. Understanding their responsibility for their deeds arnenians ran from Van away. From 2 armenian bands, having 780 and 286 men, survived only a man. On September 30, 1895 armed armenians tried to take offensive on Bab-i-Aly (Government was situated there T.G.) in Istanbul. It was made with that end in view, to from disturbances and to give cause to new pressures of Europe to Turkey. As it was noted in the information of German ambas-sador to his government: Only armenians frightened, been tempted and armed by revolutionary committee took part in this meeting. Armed units killed gendarme who called them to order and by this they incited the opposite side to fire. Shootings took place between armenians and moslems in the city.
    Totally, in 90s of the XIX century at the result of rebels and uprisings insti-gated by armenian revolutionary commit-tees were killed 5 000 (according to Agasy`s boastful information 20 000 only in Zeytun) turks and 20 000 armenians. (Armenian and armenian lover authors without any facts increased it to 50 300 000).
    At the beginning of XX century Liberators society of armenian commu-nity was organized in Turkey and its pugnacious leaders began to collect units.
    Though Russian tzarism always in capable management exploited armenian factor for his political favour, but never wanted establishing of independent arme-nian government, even in Turkey. Empire didn`t need an organized nation. They saw the important role of church in this way and wanted to weaken it. Only Echmiadzin church had a wealth about 113 million roubles which was sended by armenians from different parts of the world. In June 12, 1903 tzar government passed a law about the confiscation of armenian gri-gorian church`s wealth. This law was met with great displeasure by armenians. Armenians of Iravan, Echmiadzin, Ghumru, Gars, Baku, Shusha, Shaki, Ghanja and Tiflis armed and raised against the realizing of this law. Armenian nationalist parties Ghnchack`s departments in Baku - Inker, Banvour and Murad, besides that Droshakists (It was the name of Dashnak party`s newsparer published since 1892) which was popular among the armenian workers of the city raised against the Russion chauvinism. Terror methods took a great part. Terror acts took place against the high rank Russian offisals. Kinyaz Galitsin who was badly wounded by armenian terrorists wrote: If I had a chance, I would keep only 2 armenians a man and a woman. I would make a stuffed figures of them and put them in the Caucasian museum, to show them to the future generations. I want them to know what kind of nation were the armenians.
    The teachers and examples were not far away. These were echoes of vanda-lizm, robbery and annihilations of the Unit of Russian people organization against the jews.
    The tzar government looked at the activity of the armenian nationalists in South Caucasus as one of the means in setting on fire national conflicts and clashing of interests against the centrifugal inclunations which might be as a result of rapid national awakening.
    First blood events on the national basis between the armenians and azer-baijanians took place in 1904. It was done by the hands of armenians came from Ira-van for the special aims. One of these armenians boastfully told how he had killed azerbaijanians. And he was killed by a young azerbaijanian. But on January 12, 1905 armenian soldiers killed him on the way when he was taken to the court. So armenian moslem conflict began in Baku. On February 2, 1905 armenians killed one azerbaijanian by name Agarza in Guba meydan. On February 6, one more azerbaijanian was killed by armenian avengers. Hundreds of men were killed in the battle, the city traffic was stopped. Armed armenians began robberies and murderings. On February 7 azerbaijanians were obliged to answer them. The Baku governor knyaz V.Nakishidze on the purpose of instigating gave some guns to azerbaijanians. Didn`t bearing the azer-baijanians counter attack, armenians took position on the roofs of the houses and attacked all who crossed the streets even old, women, children. Forced to defend themselves azerbaijanians gave them merited answer.
    Profitted by the confession armenians who came from Turkey and Iranian workers began the robbery of the houses. Murders and robberies continued till February 9. Battalion was brought from Tiflis to prevent it. Number of killed azer-baijanians and armenians in this conflict were about 1000 persons. If the azer baijanians didn`t conceal and save them killed armenians may be rather more.
    So, in spite of good preparation armenians had been defeated by azer-baijanians.
    In spring of 1905 dashnaks became more active. On May 5, 1905 armenians of Shikhmahmud wounded one of the villagers of Jahri. On May 7th armenians killed one azerbaijanian in Tunbul, on May 9th, one more in Nakhchivan. On May 11, dashnaks murdered rich armenian family in Cultapa and they put fault on azerbaijanians. In state offices nobody wanted to hear complai-ments of azerbaijanians. On May 11, arme-nian bandits attacked the city. Azerbaijan-ians were almost unarmed. But they could defend themselves. No one was killed. On May 12, a group of armed armenians attack-ed azerbaijanians in the market. In mutual attacks 5 azerbaijanians and many more armenians were killed. 10 of azerbaijanian shops and many armenian ones were rob-bed. Murders and robberies continued till the next day. During the Nakhchivan events in May, 1905 though azerbaijanians were greatly harmed, armenians had been defeat-ed. After it armenian nationalists enlarged their safety activity in Iravan.
    On May 23 24, 1905 armenians killed 5 men, 4 women and 2 children in Garshachay village of Iravan.
    On May 24, enemy attacked the part of Iravan where lived azerbaijanians, 11 men were killed. From neighbouring regions, Turkey and South Azerbaijan armed moslems came for help. Armenians had more losses in killed and wounded. On July 1, they attacked Gozajik village of Girkhbulag region which consisted of 20 houses. When the people left the village, 50 years old Novruz Kazim tried to defend the village alone. After killing 2 armenian cut throats with the double barrelled gun, he was caught by them. Father of one killed armenians, clergyman named Ayrapet cut his throat and said: This is the head of a man who is equal to 1500 moslem leaders. He sent this head at first to Ghumru, then to Baku. The people of Gozajik sheltered in Mangus. In June 12, population of 12 crushed azerbaijanian villages including Mangus gathered in Tazakand. In june 3 4 the villages Gulluja and Kamal were also destroyed and robbed by armenians. They also attacked the villages in Echmiadzin.
    In June 3, armed armenians of Shoragol, Panpak and Ghumru gathered in Ilanli and attacked azerbaijanian village Ushu which was not far from here. After 8 houred battle armenians with great losses in killed and wounded receded. Taking the women and the children out of the village men foughted themselves. In June 8, enemy again attacked Ushu and neighbouring village Takya. That night 4 azerbaijanians and 180 armenian cut throats were killed in bloody battles. But as azerbaijanians were less they were obliged to leave the village. After it armenians began to attack azerbaijanians in all the places of the region. Only on June 10, 9 azerbaijanian villages were turned upside down, robbed and burnt in this district.
    Bloodthirsty armenian vandals fired on mosques, destroyed them. They sacked akhund Gazizadeh`s library in Takya and 200 sacred Goran`i Kerim were stabbed on bayonet and burnt as tourches. But tzar government didn`t take any mea-sures against the frenzied armenian cut throats.

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